Zero Watermarking: Critical Analysis of Its Role in Current Medical Imaging

Rocek, Ales; Javornik, Michal; Slavicek, Karel; Dostal, Otto

This paper is focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of selected so-called zero watermarking methods (ones that do not cause any modification of an image sample), in the protection of the integrity, and proving authorship, of these medical image studies. We have studied many zero watermarking methods and selected one representative from each type of known algorithms for comparison. 

Journal of Digital Imaging    Volume: 34   Pages: 204-211   Published: JAN 2021


Reversible Watermarking in Medical Imaging with Zero Distortion in ROI

Rocek, Ales; Javornik, Michal; Slavicek, Karel; Dostal, Otto

Securing images by watermarking is practically unused in medical practice despite its undeniable advantages. This paper proposes a method that tries to solve this problem. It is able to secure medical images by watermarking without any changes in those areas of images that carry medical information. It thus allows direct diagnosis of images in the watermarked state. The proposed method combines three fundamental approaches that offer suitable methods for watermarking medical images: Zero, Reversible and RONI watermarking. The proposed method has been deployed on a large database (60,000 images) and the very promising results of this experiment are described and discussed in detail in this article. The security of the proposed method from different perspectives is also discussed. Resistance to attack by cropping-out part of the image, resistance to steganalysis and security after unveiling the method or algorithm used. The aim was to propose such a method of medical images watermarking, which eliminates the disadvantages of existing methods and will be applicable in everyday hospital practice.

Proceedings of 24th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS 2017)


A new approach to fully-reversible watermarking in medical imaging with breakthrough visibility parameters

Rocek, Ales; Slavicek, Karel; Dostal, Otto; et al.

Securing of medical images against intentional or accidental modification is a general issue in modern radiology. Watermarking, with its data-centric security, is very convenient for this purpose. We proposed a new method of fully reversible watermarking in medical imaging by combining the advantages of three traditional approaches-Reversible, Zero and RONI watermarking. The new method achieves exceptionally high values of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Structural Similarity index. The article evaluates the pros and cons of current methods of watermarking in medical imaging. Keeping the pros and eliminating the cons of the methods allows a new approach. Specific methods are selected and their application in practice described in detail. Application of the proposed method on a database of 6000 medical images from common hospital operations delivers very promising results which are discussed at the end of the article.

BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND CONTROL   Volume: 29   Pages: 44-52   Published: AUG 2016


Data-Rate and Queuing Method Optimization for Internetworking Medical Applications


Dolezel, Radek; Dostal, Otto; Hosek, Jiri; et al.

In medical environment, there is a fundamental demand to transfer and store large volumes of image data generated by modern medical devices. Currently the majority of the medical facilities spread around the country have quite limited Internet access. The aim of our work, presented in this article, was to find an optimal solution to transfer large volumes of image date over low-capacity links with regarding to minimum response-times. First we statistically described the traffic generated by the corresponding medical equipment and then evaluated the behaviour of these mathematical models in the OPNET Modeler discrete event simulation environment.

5th Annual International ICST Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets 2010); Budapest, HUNGARY; NOV 03-05, 2010 ACCESS NETWORKS; Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering   Volume: 63   Pages: 141-152   Published: 2011

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Service Availability Quantification in Datacommunication Networks

Slavicek, Karel; Dostal, Otto; Javornik, Michal

The aim of this work is to propose a novel methodology for quantification of datacommunication network availability. Currently used reliability calculation model is not very suitable for networking environment with many-to-many type of communication. In this paper we propose a novel method to quantify service availability in datacommunication networks. The proposed method reflects the multipoint-to-multipoint nature of datacommunication. The main idea of the proposed method is utilization of a special class of mathematical operations called t-norms.

34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP) Location: Budapest, HUNGARY Date: AUG 18-20, Pages: 57-61   Published: 2011


Medical Traffic Modeling For Delay Measurement in Bottleneck Network

Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri; Koutny, Martin; et al.

The article deals with the delay of medical data in queues, caused by a bottleneck in the network. Primarily it focuses on the mathematical basis for defining the entrance traffic based on exponential distribution in the Network simulator and next it describes the possibility of calculating the delay from the trace file. Another alternative for the entrance traffic is also loading the input data from a file. In the simulation part a model of input medical imaging data is implemented, and simulations are performed on a network with a bottleneck, when the delay is measurement for different combinations of active input medical imaging sources.

34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP); Budapest, HUNGARY Date: AUG 18-20, 2011; Pages: 208-212; Published: 2011

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MEDIMED - Regional Centre for Medicine Image Data Processing

Slavicek, Karel; Dostal, Otto; Javornik, Michal

Masaryk University in Brno is operating a regional PACS archive serving to mostly all hospitals in Brno metropolis and a lot of remote medicine institutions. The communication between modalities (i.e. CT, ultrasound, X-ray, etc.) PACS archive and viewing stations is based on DICOM standard. This paper describes current state of the art of this medicine images storage system.

34th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP); Budapest, HUNGARY Date: AUG 18-20, 2011; Pages: 57-61; Published: 2011


RapidMiner Image Processing Extension: A Platform for Collaborative Research

Burget, Radim; Karasek, Jan; Smekal, Zdenek; et al.

RapidMiner is today one of the most widely used data mining and predictive analysis solutions world-wide. This paper introduces an image processing extension for RapidMiner and a presents the basic concepts and ideas about this extension. This paper also presents some feature extraction operators and individual operations used in extension. The use of the proposed extension was demonstrated on the real-world problem - identification of an area of interest in mammograms and also other two applications are mentioned. The code is provided freely with an open source license in hope, it can be applied for a collaborative research work in the area of data mining.

33rd International Conference on Telecommunication and Signal Processing Location: Vienna, AUSTRIA Date: AUG 17-20, 2010; Pages: 114-118   Published: 2010


The transmission rate measuring methods

Martinasek, Zdenek; Sobotka, Jiri; Dostal, Otto; et al.

There are many methods for testing the parametres of computer network devices or the network itself. Different client applications and specialized hardware devices are being used in this measuring methods. This article is detaily describing the references which should be folloved by every kind of test (RFC 1242 [2] a RFC 2544 [1]). Experimental measuring composed in test report is shown at the end of this article.

32nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing Location: Dunakiliti, HUNGARY Date: AUG 26-27, 2009; Pages: 176-181   Published: 2009


Mathematical Processing of Syslog Messages from Routers and Switches

Slavicek, Karel; Ledvinka, Jaroslav; Javornik, Michal; et al.

The development of computer networks is very fast. Masaryk university in Brno owns and operates rather large metropolitan computer network. This network is based on fiber optics cable infrastructure owned by the university. Networking devices used in our university's backbone network can send their log messages to a Unix-style syslog server. A syslog server accepts messages, and stores them to a file. The number of syslog messages generated by still increasing number of networking devices is growing very rapidly. To read all the messages generated ever), day by active networking devices is out of human capabilities. When we want to really process thousands of messages generated every day it is necessary to use some special software tools which help us to skip over messages containing mostly no information. Till now we are using software tool developed by a student of our university as a part of her master thesis. This tool is based on parsing of the syslog messages of known structure. This approach allows aggregation of messages reporting the same event and summarizing of repeating messages. This approach we can call semantic analysis of syslog messages. Nowadays we have probably reached limits of this system. The main limitation of this semantic based syslog analysis is the necessity of description of each event type i.e. knowledge of all messages describing this type of event. The system can't adapt to new condition like new routing or data transport protocols usage (e.g. IPv6).

4th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability Location: Colombo, SRI LANKA; DEC 12-14, 2008; Pages: 215-+   Published: 2008


Technology background of international colaboration on medicine multimedia knowledgebase establishment

Slavicek, Karel; Javornik, Michal; Dostal, Otto

Institute of Computer Science of Masaryk University in cooperation with CESNET are working on the field of supporting medicine multimedia data transport archiving and processing more than ten years. Since first steps like transport of ultrasound and CT images across private fibre optics network these activities have grown up to regional PACS archive. Today more and more hospitals are participating on this project know under the name MediMed and we stand before scaling this project not only to republic wide application but also abroad. This paper describes current state of the art of MediMed project.

2nd WSEAS International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications Location: Acapulco, MEXICO Date: JAN 25-27, 2008; Book Series: Electrical and Computer Engineering Series; Pages: 137-142; Published: 2008



Javornik, Michal; Dostal, Otto; Slavicek, Karel; et al.

The purpose of this article is to introduce an advanced system for the support of processing of medical image information, and the terminology related to this system, which is an important element to a faster transition to a fully digitalized hospital.

The goal was to establish an open, collaborative environment that supports broad cooperation, improves cost-effectiveness, quality of treatment as well as coordinated research and education. Healthcare institutions and faculties of medicine can therefore exploit the large potential of databases of medical image information being processed. in hospitals today.

38th International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering; Beihang Univ, Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA; OCT 31-NOV 02, 2008; Pages: 883-887; Published: 2008


Integration of telemedicine activities in the Czech Republic

Dostal, Otto; Javornik, Michal; Slavicek, Karel; et al.

Institute of Computer Science of Masaryk University is working on the field of supporting medicine multimedia data transport archiving and processing more than ten years. Since first steps like transport of ultrasound and CT images across private fibre optics network these activities have grown up to regional PACS archive. Today more and more hospitals are participating on this project know under the name MediMed and we stand before scaling this project to republic wide application. Connection of remote hospitals introduced some not very common technical solutions. This paper describes current state of the art of MediMed project.

4th International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology Location: Dubai, U ARAB EMIRATES Date: NOV 18-20, 2007; Pages: 532-+;   Published: 2007


Wireless technology in medicine applications

Dostal, Otto; Slavicek, Karel

Institute of Computer Science of Masaryk University is working on the field of supporting medicine multimedia data transport archiving and processing more than ten years. Since first steps like transport of ultrasound and CT images across private fibre optics network these activities have grown up to regional PACS archive. Today more and more hospitals axe participating on this project know under the name MediMed. For deployment of MediMed to some remote locations and especially to residence users (medicine specialists) it was necessary to utilise wireless and microwave technologies. Experiences with usage of wireless technology for delivery of medicine picture data are described in this paper.

12th International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2007) Location: Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC Date: SEP, 2007; Book Series: International Federation for Information Processing   Volume: 245; Pages: 316-+; Published: 2007


Use of 3D geometry modeling of osteochondrosis-like iatrogenic lesions as a template for press-and-fit scaffold seeded with mesenchymal stem cells

Krupa, P.; Krsek, P.; Javornik, M.; et al.

Computed tomography (CT) is an effective diagnostic modality for three-dimensional imaging of bone structures, including the geometry of their defects. The aim of the study was to create and optimize 3D geometrical and real plastic models of the distal femoral component of the knee with joint surface defects. Input data included CT images of stifle joints in twenty miniature pigs with iatrogenic osteochondrosis-like lesions in medial femoral condyle of the left knee. The animals were examined eight and sixteen weeks after surgery. Philips NIX 8000 NIX and View workstation were used for scanning parallel plane cross section slices and Cartesian discrete volume creation. On the average, 100 slices were performed in each stifle joint. Slice matrices size was 512 x 512 with slice thickness of I mm. Pixel (voxel) size in the slice plane was 0.5 mm (with average accuracy of 0.5 mm and typical volume size 512 x 512 x 100 voxels). Three-dimensional processing of CT data and 3D geometrical modelling, using interactive computer graphic system MediTools formerly developed here, consisted of tissue segmentation (raster based method combination and 5 % of manual correction), vectorization by the marching-cubes method, smoothing and decimation. Stifle- joint CT images of three individuals of different body size (small, medium and large) were selected to make the real plastic models of their distal femurs from plaster composite using rapid prototyping technology of Zcorporation. Accuracy of the modeling was 0.5 mm. The real plastic models of distal femurs can be used as a template for developing custom made press and fit scaffold implants seeded with mesenchymal stem cells that might be subsequently implanted into iatrogenic joint surface defects for articular cartilage-repair enhancement.

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH   Volume: 56   Pages: S107-S114   Published: 2007


Collaborative environment supporting research and education in the area of medical image information
Dostal, Otto; Javornik, Michal; Ventruba, Pavel

Dissemination of medical knowledge, tools to support and assist in decision making and relevant and accurate sources of information for scientific research all enhance the synergy among the medical community, play a very important role in healthcare and consequently bring benefits to all people, in particular the community they serve The goal of our project is to establish an open, collaborative environment to support coordinated research and education among cooperating healthcare institutions and faculties of medicine by exploiting the large potential of databases of medical image information being processed in hospitals today. The core of the solution is tailored commercial Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS). That PACS is the repository of anonymous medical image studies, accessible through a supporting computer network infrastructure of the Masaryk University. Every incorporated image study must be annotated with a detailed description in Digital Image Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Report format and must be assigned a set of key words describing all the medical findings and diagnosis for better retrieval of specific cases. Dedicated diagnostic workstations are used and primarily connected to the hospital PACS or other image generating equipment communicating in DICOM standard. The DICOM connection accessing the Educational and Research PACS is used when an appropriate image for teaching or research purposes is identified and sent into the database and also when searching and retrieving image information. Tailored PACS can be used as a "PACS trainer" for the training and teaching of radiologists, particularly where the "PACS trainer" forms the basis for additional educational and research applications. For example, the application can be used for developing Case Studies, a shared platform accessible at all stages of a given medical case, and teaching, referencing the relevant Image Studies. For every area of medicine, there is a board of physicians responsible for determining the correctness of information incorporated and used for teaching of medical students.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED RADIOLOGY AND SURGERY   Volume: 1   Supplement: 1   Pages: 98-100   Published: JUN 2006


User Authentication to Access Secure Data

Navratil, Pavel; Slavicek, Karel; Dostal, Otto

Since January 2002 the Institute of Computer Science in Masaryk University operates a regional archive of medicine image information. All connected client appliances utilize DICOM standard with pure user authentication capabilities. For authentication purposes IP address of appliance is mostly used. This solution is satisfactory for modalities but not suitable for remote consultants and mobile users. We have bypassed this weakness of DICOM standard by utilizing IPSEC tunnels and assigning client address based on user authentication.

1st CESNET Conference on Advanced Communications and Grids Location: Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC Date: MAR 06-08, 2006;Pages: 127-132; Published: 2006


Opportunity of current ICT in the processing of medical image information

Dostal, Otto; Javornik, Michal; Slavicek, Karel

The goal of the MeDiMed (Metropolitan Digital Imaging System in Medicine) project is to establish a communications channel to exchange information and for specialist consultations among various medical institutions and also to organise training for practicing radiologists and medical students in providing telemedicine services. We give users outside the hospital the same access and functionality allowing them to work nearly as if they were working at their workstation in the radiology department of their hospital.

The efficiency and rationalization of technological and human resources must be considered in connection with improvements of the the quality of healthcare. Teleradiology in the Czech Republic is crucial because medical experts and specialists can be available in urgent cases pennitting qualified external medical experts to be involved in the diagnosis. Regional-level procurements of systems and services is preferred to achieve major savings and improve the quality of healthcare including the learning processes.

The evolution of educational and research services provided by the MeDiMed project is also influenced by emerging wireless communication technology. We have used the wireless network operated by the universities and since 2005, the Healthware (standard and interoperable satellite solution to deploy health care services over wide areas) project permits the appropriate services to be accessible through the satellite network covering Europe. Healthware satellite based platforms will interact with mobile and terrestrial technologies.

IASTED International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Technology Location: Puerto Vallarta, MEXICO Date: JAN 23-25, 2006; Pages: 193-195   Published: 2006


Regional educational and research centre for processing of medical image information

Dostal, O; Javornik, M

The Shared Regional PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) operated by the Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic, was from the start designed to serve as a reliable and accessible communications node and also as an educational and research centre available to any hospital or other healthcare institutions, including medical faculties, interested in participating in the System. Outsourcing of the archiving and communications technology permitted cooperation between hospitals and utilisation of existing multimedia data of patients. The System has, step by step, changed the thinking of medical specialists and taught them to cooperate and share data about patients in electronic form. The Shared Regional PACS is not just a computer network but rather is and develops a network of medical specialists. The impact of this network is not only in the field of healthcare but also in education of medical specialists. The data stored in the shared archive can be made anonymous (i.e., the personal data of patients are replaced by fictitious personal information) and used for educational purposes. Moreover, the process of making the personal data anonymous can be done in such a way that the data about the real patient obtained from several hospitals can use the same anonymous identity and therefore offer to students a more complex view of the evolution of the patient's health. (c) 2005 CARS & Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

19th International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery Location: Berlin, GERMANY Date: JUN 22-25, 2005; Book Series: INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS SERIES   Volume: 1281   Pages: 911-915   Published: 2005


New possibilities of multimedia applications in medicine

Dostal, O; Filka, M; Petrenko, M

The paper deals with some new possibilities of image transfer in medicine. Multimedia transfer in such cases then includes the transfer of data, images, video recording including the Picture Archiving and Communicating System - PACS. Its new possibilities and visions within the telecommunication field are specified below.

46th International Symposium Electronics in Marine (ELMAR -2004) Location: Zadar, CROATIA Date: JUN 16-18, 2004; Pages: 402-405; Published: 2004


Multimedia communication transmission in medicine

Dostal, O; Filka, M; Petrenko, M

The authors deal with transmitting, archiving, and sharing medical data between various modalities. The emphasis is on PACS, transmision media ( in this case the Metropolitan Academic Computer Network in Brno, Czech Republic) and interconnection of various types of hospitals and medical institutions.

4th International Symposium on Video/Image Processing and Multimedia Communications Location: ZADAR, CROATIA Date: JUN 16-19, 2002; Pages: 53-55; Published: 2002  


Complete lists of publications

citation standard ČSN ISO 960

February 2022

doc. Ing. Otto Dostál, CSc. here
doc. Mgr. Karel Slavíček, Ph.D. here
RNDr. Michal Javorník, Ph.D. here
Ing. Vladimír Zatloukal here
Ing. Aleš Roček, Ph.D. here
Ing. Vladimír Schindler, Ph.D. here

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